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Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS)

The original version of PSMS is an observer-rated version.
There is also a self-rated version which is incorporated in the Philadelphia geriatric center Multilevel Assessement Instrument (MAI)

Adapted from the Langley-Porter Physical Self-Maintenance Scale in 1969

Author(s)

Brody Elaine M; Lawton Powel M

© Polisher Research Institute - Philadelphia Geriatric Center

Purpose

  • Pathology:

Generic

  • Disease:

All

  • Objective:

To assess functional abilities in elderly patients

  • Population for intended use:

Geriatrics

 

Characteristics

  • Type of instrument:

Physical functioning

  • Administration mode:

Proxy-rated

Self-administered

  • Data collection mode:

Paper and pen

  • Number of items:

6 (original observer rated version); 8 (self-rated version)

  • Recall/Observation period:

None

 

Bibliographic reference(s) of the original questionnaire

Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS). Original observer-rated version. Psychopharmacol Bull 1988;24:793-4

 

Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS). Self-rated version. Incorporated in the Philadelphia Geriatric Center. Multilevel Assessment Instrument (MAI). Psychopharmacol Bull 1988; 24:795-7

 

Lawton MP, Brody EM. Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist 1969; 9:179-86

Language(s)

  • Original language:

English for the USA

  • List of existing translations:

The translations listed below may not have undergone a full linguistic validation process and may require further work to be suitable for use in a study.
This list of translations is subject to constant changes, therefore please check the status of translations with Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.

PSMS

Japanese for Japan

For information on, or permission to use the original questionnaire, please contact:

Polisher Research Institute
Madlyn and Leonard Abramson Center for Jewish Life
1425 Horsham Road
North Wales, PA 19454-1320
USA
Phone: +1 (215) 371-1333
E-mail: librarian@abramsoncenter.org

Conditions of use

 free access
 with author’s written permission
 with fees for academic/non profit research
 with fees for commercial/pharmaceutical companies
 with the signature of a contract/agreement
 other: Please provide proper citation when using the scale

Copy of the original questionnaire

PSMS in English for the USA observer-rated version and self-administered version

Bibliographic reference(s) of the original questionnaire

Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS). Original observer-rated version. Psychopharmacol Bull 1988;24:793-4

 

Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS). Self-rated version. Incorporated in the Philadelphia Geriatric Center. Multilevel Assessment Instrument (MAI). Psychopharmacol Bull 1988; 24:795-7

 

Lawton MP, Brody EM. Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist 1969; 9:179-86

Domain(s) covered by the questionnaire

Observer-rated version:

  • Toilet
  • Feeding
  • Dressing
  • Grooming
  • Physical ambulation
  • Bathing

Time for completion

5 min

Respondent age range

60+ years

Scoring

Response options:
    Yes/no (self-rated version only) 
    5-point Likert scale for the observer-rated version and 3- to 4-point for the self-rated version
    Visual Analog Scale (VAS)
    Other
Available scores:
    Global score
    Scores by dimension
    Scores by items
Weighting:
    Yes 
    No
Score direction:
    Higher score = better QoL
    Lower score = better functioning
Minimal Important Difference (MID): Not evaluated

Existence of a scoring / interpretation / user manual

Yes. Please contact the Polisher Research Institute

Note

We have given each item below a number to indicate the level of information we have available. Our key indicates the following:

Grade 1: information not found

Grade 2: information mentioned

Grade 3: information documented

Grade 4: information documented and access to the source materials provided/possible

Concept elicitation and Item generation

     Literature review - Grade 2
     Instruments review: the PSMS was adapted from the Langley-Porter Physical Self-Maintenance Scale - Grade 2
     Focus groups: Not detailed - Grade 1
     In-depth interviews with patients and/or family members and/or caregivers: Not detailed - Grade 1
     Health care professionals interviews: Not detailed - Grade 1

Instrument development

Not detailed - Grade 1

Identification of the conceptual framework

Not detailed - Grade 1

Instrument final version

Not detailed - Grade 1

Bibliographic references

Lawton MP, Brody EM. Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist 1969; 9:179-86

Reliability

- Internal consistency reliability

Not applicable

- Test-retest reliability (reproducibility)

- Reproducibility coefficient: 0.96
- Population/disease: Elederly people; n= 265
- Was a definition of stability applied to identify stable patients: No
- Time frame or interval between the two administrations: varies from a few days to a month or two

Reference:
Lawton MP, Brody EM. Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist 1969; 9:179-86

Validity

- Clinical validity: explores logical relations that should exist with other clinical/biological/level of severity measures. It includes discriminant validity (= known groups validity)

Information not specified for the population for which the instrument was developed

Ability to detect change

Information not specified for the population for which the instrument was developed

Bibliographic reference(s) of the original questionnaire

Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS). Original observer-rated version. Psychopharmacol Bull 1988;24:793-4

 

Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS). Self-rated version. Incorporated in the Philadelphia Geriatric Center. Multilevel Assessment Instrument (MAI). Psychopharmacol Bull 1988; 24:795-7

 

Lawton MP, Brody EM. Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist 1969; 9:179-86

Other bibliographic reference(s)

 See (PubMed results)

Last update: September 2013

Last update in collaboration with the author: June 2013

  

For additional information on this instrument, please contact our Information Support Unit